2 Approaches to Designing or Renovating a Hotel (or Pension) by KPD

Hotel Design

Hotel design is a meticulously planned process that kicks off with a concept and culminates in detailed documentation. Every hotel design is unique, tailored to meet the expectations of future guests, and stands as a harmonious blend of architectural brilliance and intricate design.

Two primary approaches to hotel design or renovation:

1. Design based on star ratings

2. Design anchored on room capacity

Project by KPD.design Park Voyage Hotel Lobby

Designing Hotels Around Star Ratings

When our team embarks on designing hotels, we primarily consider the target audience, location, and overall hotel concept, since these directly correlate to the hotel's profitability. The star rating classification, awarded post-construction, also plays a pivotal role in determining profitability. Thus, often, our mission is to design a hotel complex that aligns with its projected star rating. Here, one could start from the base classification requirements, indicating the desired "star" level for a resort hotel, inn, or boarding house.

As previously mentioned, for a hotel to secure a star rating, it has to undergo a specific classification. In Russia, this classification follows the rules set by SP 257.1325800 2016 โ€œHotel Buildings Design Rulesโ€. This set of rules categorizes objects based on comfort levels. The star count awarded to a hotel is determined by a myriad of criteria.

Star ratings range from one to five. If a hotel meets all criteria, it achieves the pinnacle - a "five-star" rating. However, non-compliance with certain prerequisites could deprive a hotel of its star status. The Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation No. 1215 details the procedure for assigning star ratings to tourism sector establishments. Stars are conferred based on a point system, employed when evaluating a hotel. Distinct assessment criteria exist for accommodations (hotels) with less than 50 rooms and those with 50 or more, resort hotels, heritage site hotels, aparthotels, and boarding houses. The document also outlines requirements for beaches and ski slopes.

Points are garnered based on specific parameters, encompassing room amenities, and the quality of services provided. For instance, parameters might include the availability of bathrobes in 100% of the rooms, bidets or hygiene showers in at least 50% of the rooms, on-site restaurants or cafes, operating hours of public eateries, fitness centers, saunas, parking space, security presence in parking areas, elevators, swimming pools, or covered entrances. We won't delve deep into the exhaustive list of classification parameters โ€“ they're elaborately described in the aforementioned document.

To evaluate a hotel or another lodging facility, a six-stage process is employed:

  1. Preliminary Assessment: This first phase is to determine if the facility matches one of the set categories. Following this, a report is made (Report 1).
  2. Score-Based Evaluation: The second phase involves scoring the facility based on established criteria. The findings are recorded in a report (Report 2).
  3. Room Evaluation: The third phase assesses the rooms of the hotel or other accommodations. This assessment aligns with the set classification criteria. Outcomes are compiled into a report (Report 4).
  4. Room Scoring: The fourth phase scores individual rooms of the facility based on predefined criteria. The evaluation outcomes are registered in a report (Report 5).
  5. Staff Scoring: The fifth stage scores the staff of the hotel or other accommodations according to the designated criteria. These findings are also recorded in a report (Report 3).
  6. Final Classification: The sixth and final phase creates an assessment act based on all the previous reports, determining the facility's category (Hotel Evaluation Act).

The star rating of a hotel indicates not only its comfort level but also the standard of service provided to its guests. Hence, it's vital to consider the star rating early in the hotel planning and design stages.

  1. Designing a One-Star Hotel: Focus should be on cost-effectiveness and functionality. Such a hotel should prioritize basic service provisions. One-star and two-star hotels are often termed budget or economy hotels. They offer essential amenities and services for basic accommodation. In a one-star hotel, expect simple furnishings, basic room equipment, and a small bathroom. Rooms in these hotels might be modest in size, cleaned less frequently than in more upscale hotels, and might lack air conditioning or TVs, with safes possibly located at reception.

  2. Designing a Two-Star Hotel: Additional services need to be considered. These might include in-room Wi-Fi, a TV, air conditioning, and possibly guest dining options such as a cafe or kitchen. While two-star hotels predominantly feature basic rooms with minimal amenities, they aren't significantly different from one-star hotels in terms of services and facilities. A restaurant, cafe, or bar might be available, but it's not guaranteed.
    Overall, economy hotels cater to travelers seeking simple, affordable lodging without added services or luxuries. However, when opting for such hotels, it's essential to remember that the comfort and service quality might be inferior compared to higher-starred establishments.
    3. Three-Star Hotel Design: A three-star hotel is a mid-range establishment offering a comfortable stay with a range of amenities. Typically, guests can expect room cleaning services, air conditioning, televisions, Wi-Fi, mini-bars, safes, dining options, and potentially even a sauna or fitness center. A 24/7 front desk service is crucial, ensuring guest accessibility at all times. Safety and security are paramount, so surveillance cameras and secured parking are essential.

Design specifications for three-star hotels include:

  • Minimum room size of 14 square meters.
  • En-suite bathrooms with a minimum size of 4 square meters.
  • Rooms equipped with either one double bed or two singles, each at least 80 cm wide.
  • Corridors with a minimum height of 2.2 meters and width of 1.2 meters.

Compared to budget hotels (1-2 stars), three-star establishments promise a superior level of comfort, with a diverse range of room categories, from economy to luxury suites.

Essential design norms for a three-star hotel include:

  • A double room size of no less than 14 sq. meters.
  • Diverse room types.
  • Maximum three occupants per room.
  • In-room phones.
  • Direct access to dining areas from the main hall.
  • Forced ventilation in all rooms.
  • Separate service entrances.
  • All rooms equipped with en-suite toilets and showers.
  • Availability of family rooms with mini-kitchens and possibly two bathrooms.

4. Designing a Four-Star Hotel: When crafting a four-star hotel, luxury, comfort, safety, and privacy take center stage. These hotels offer a more upscale experience than their three-star counterparts, featuring amenities such as restaurants, bars, and gym facilities. Rooms in four-star hotels tend to be more spacious, boasting additional luxuries like bathrobes, slippers, hairdryers, and more.

Key design specifications include:

  • Minimum room size of 16 square meters.
  • En-suite bathrooms of at least 4 square meters.
  • At least one double bed in the room, a minimum of 160 cm wide.
  • Elevators for guest convenience.
  • Individual storage spaces or closets.

These specifications, tailored for an SEO-friendly and reader-friendly format, ensure that prospective hoteliers or customers understand the distinctions and expectations for different hotel star ratings.
4. Four-Star Hotel Design Guidelines: Based on the "Hotel Building Design Rules", the following are essential requirements for a four-star hotel:

  • A room for two people should not be less than 16 sq. meters.
  • Air conditioning should be available in all rooms and common areas.
  • Internet connection in communal spaces.
  • Enhanced soundproofing for added guest comfort.
  • In emergencies, there should be a backup system for hot water supply.
  • An emergency power supply system should be in place in case of disconnection from the primary power source.
  • Elevators are mandatory.
    These features shape the design and planning of such a hotel, indicating the need for detailed development of specific sections and forming the foundation of their design blueprint.

5. Five-Star Hotel Design: A five-star hotel is the epitome of luxury and top-notch service quality. Typically, these establishments offer room cleaning services twice a day. In 4-5 star hotels, standard rooms can range from 20 to 30 square meters or even more.

For five-star hotel designs, the existing norms encompass the following:

  • Internet connectivity in every room.
  • Telephones in rooms, allowing not only local or national calls but also international connectivity.
  • An internal radio network.
  • A conference hall equipped with necessary devices and tools.
  • Banquet halls, restaurants, cafes, and bars for varied dining and entertainment experiences.
  • On-site shopping facilities.
  • A dedicated cloakroom.
  • A waiting area for temporary accommodation, relaxation zones, and recreational spaces.
  • Advanced electronic locking systems and security alarms.
  • Swimming pools for leisure and relaxation.

When designing or assessing luxury hotels, these criteria help in setting apart the elite establishments, ensuring guests receive the highest level of service and amenities.

Hotel Design Rules According to Room Stock

One of the most crucial parameters determining a hotel's star rating is its room stock.
Room stock refers to the total number of rooms in a hotel, which can be classified into different categories based on their type, area, equipment, and services offered to guests. The variety in a hotel's room stock can significantly impact its star rating.

The requirement for a diverse room stock begins with three-star hotels. They might have rooms of two types: standard and family (suite), for instance. Four-star hotels should have at least three room types: standard, junior, and suite. A five-star hotel should comprise at least four room types and subtypes: standard, junior, suite, and deluxe suite.
Project by KPD.design - Tender room visualization

Standard is a single-room accommodation in a hotel (or any other lodging place), often accompanied by an entryway, an equipped bathroom, and a balcony suitable for 1-2 people. Some hotels feature upgraded standard rooms, distinguished by a larger area and a bigger bed.

Junior is a room consisting of an equipped bathroom and a single space, tentatively divided into two areas - the bed alcove and the living area.

Suite is a room in a hotel with a total area of no less than 35 m^2, consisting of two living rooms - a living room and a bedroom, along with a full bathroom (sink, toilet, bath, or shower), typically designed for one/two person(s).

Deluxe Suite is a room with an improved layout, which includes more than one bedroom and an equipped bathroom (or two bathrooms). For flexibility, some smaller hotels combine two standard rooms through a door. Such rooms are suitable for families: parents sleep in one room while children sleep in the other. These rooms may feature adjustable beds, converting from two single beds into one double bed and vice versa. This design doesn't add extra points for classification.

In line with legislative requirements, a hotel must have a specified number of rooms for each category. If a hotel does not meet these requirements, it cannot be awarded a star rating.

Thus, for one-star hotels, it is typical to have single rooms with an area of no less than 9 square meters and double rooms with an area of no less than 12 square meters. Additionally, the rooms should have beds with orthopedic mattresses, bedside tables, a desk, chairs, and mirrors. Bathrooms should be equipped with either a shower or bathtub, sink, toilet, and should provide hot and cold water. Rooms should come with bedding, towels, soap, and shampoo.

Two-star hotels offer a broader room selection, including higher-priced rooms. For example, besides single and double rooms, such hotels might provide studio rooms or suites, as well as rooms with views of the sea or the city. Room sizes can also be larger, and the equipment quality higher.

Furthermore, two-star hotels can offer additional amenities for their guests, such as in-room safes, air conditioners, mini-bars, saunas, swimming pools, and so on. Such additional services can elevate the hotel's level.
Project by KPD.design Rooftop Hotel Restaurant

An essential factor for three-star and higher hotels is the quality of service and staff. In hotels of this comfort level, the staff should have professional skills and hospitality to ensure top-notch guest service.

The variety in room stock and comfortable conditions in three-star and above hotels allow for a higher classification. Proper hotel design, considering all requirements for each room category, and equipping the hotel with all necessary amenities and services, ensures a high comfort level for guests.

In four and five-star hotels, it's mandatory to provide "suite" or "apartment" rooms that offer amenities distinct from standard rooms, like a separate living area, a large bathroom with a jacuzzi, a private pool, etc. These rooms should also include additional furniture and equipment.

8 Hotel-Inspired Tips Worth Applying at Home - Read HERE.

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